For many tesitas it is not easy to stand before a group of experts to defend their work of degree, which leads them to incur reasoning that defies logic and affects good argumentation. It is so often resort to fallacies to answer questions or try to give greater strength to an idea.
After the theses are presented, the juries are left discussing the performance and the quality of the grade-level work in order to give a grade. It is there where it is commented what were the successes and failures of the speaker.
Among the most talked about mistakes are the argumentative fallacies, which are usually not the product of a premeditated script, but nervousness makes them emerge at an inappropriate time.
Next, the 7 logical fallacies that are most heard in a thesis are mentioned, accompanied by an example:
1. Personal attack
It consists in attacking the jury instead of attacking their argument.
“Professor, I’ve noticed that this topic does not dominate you very well”.
2. Fallacy of authority
It is about pretending that something is true only because it was said by an expert on the subject.
“If Paulo Freire said it is because it is true.”
3. Fallacy of the majority
It is believing that something is true because most people perceive it.
“Everyone uses this methodology, therefore, it is the best for these investigations.”
4. Straw man
It is about misinterpreting or caricaturing the words of the jury that challenges you.
“You should not start talking about that.
Why? Is he implying that I am a brute and I can not defend my own thesis? “
5. False dilemma
It is when you think that there are only two positions on a topic.
“The correct sampling technique is this, or is it that they no longer accept population sampling?”.
6. False Scotsman
It is to think that someone can not be part of a certain group because it does not meet the “X” requirement.
“Professor, if you have not read Keynes, you do not know anything about economics.”
7. False denial of the conjunction
It happens when not causing an event as a result of several elements, one of those elements is denied.
“In the rigorous investigations interviews are used; the research you mention lacks academic rigor, that’s because they did not use an interview to capture the information. “
In sum, there are many types of fallacies that are not mentioned here, however, these are the most frequent in a thesis defense.
The idea is that you know them so that you avoid incurring them when sustaining your degree work, given that they make you look very ill prepared and with argumentative deficiencies.
In another entry we have given some good advice on the support of the thesis, we invite you to review and apply in that desired day.